pope benedict xvi

With Francis there are obvious differences, but Guerriero emphasizes the personal bond, affection, and promised loyalty of Benedict to his successor. That same year, to foster relations and understanding between religions, Benedict addressed the first Catholic-Muslim Forum, a three-day conference of Catholic theologians and Islamic scholars. Benedict stayed there while renovations were made to a convent, Mater Ecclesiae, in the southwest corner of Vatican City, which became his residence. In March 1977, he was named archbishop of Munich and Freising and, three months later, was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Ratzinger defended and reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality and inter-religious dialogue. In 1941 he was compelled to join the Hitler Youth, and in 1943 he was drafted into the German military, serving in an antiaircraft unit in Bavaria before being sent to Hungary to set tank traps in 1945. Former pope Benedict is seriously ill, reports say. Battles among the political parties set people against one another.". The Vatican also denounced as “false and calumnious” the charge that as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Benedict had been responsible for a policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. Benedict has written a total of 66 books. He contributed to a document that severely criticized the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and that eventually led to its reorganization by Pope Paul VI (1963–78) as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Although he said he had prayed not to be chosen, Ratzinger humbly accepted his election on April 19, 2005, becoming at age 78 the oldest newly elected pope since Clement XII (1730–40). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Getty Pope Benedict XVI waves to pilgrims, for the last time as head of the Catholic Church in 2013. One of Benedict's final acts as a pope was a tweet to his Twitter following. Benedict XVI served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009; 2010; 2011; 2012; 2013; Apostolic Constitutions In November of that same year, in an act of outreach to conservative Anglicans, Benedict approved an apostolic constitution, or special decree, that allowed Anglican clergymen and laypersons to join the Roman Catholic Church while maintaining some Anglican traditions. During his long academic career, Ratzinger wrote a number of important theological works, including Introduction to Christianity (1968) and Dogma and Revelation (1973). Pope decides against allowing married men to become priests. The Facts About “Pope Benedict XVI” – Joseph Alois Ratzinger What You Need To Know About the Man who Claimed to be the Pope from 2005-2013 "Benedict XVI" On April 19, 2005, the German "cardinal" Fr. Pope Benedict XVI, whose given name is Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, was born and raised in Marktl Am Inn, Bavaria, Germany. Benedict walked through the doorway right after Francis, gingerly negotiating the two steps with the help of a cane and his longtime assistant. The election of a new Pope is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. ANGELUS . Born: 16-Apr-1927 Birthplace: Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion Nationality: Germany Executive summary: Pope Emeritus Ordained 29 June 1951. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As a defense against the Nazi regime, Ratzinger threw himself into the Roman Catholic Church, "a citadel of truth and righteousness against the realm of atheism and deceit," he wrote. BENEDICT XVI . For more than a quarter of a century, Peter Seewald (1954) has accompanied Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger/Benedict XVI, the first pope emeritus in centuries. In February 2013 Benedict announced that he would resign at the end of that month, citing age and health concerns. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church in March 2013, becoming Pope Francis. He turned to theological studies after the war, helping found the influential journal Communio. Das Christentum und die Weltreligionen. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Alienated by the student protests at Tübingen, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Americas. Glaube - Wahrheit - Toleranz. He told TIME magazine in 1993 that while stationed near Hungary, he saw Hungarian Jews being sent to death camps. Benedict also indicated that he would maintain his predecessor’s conservative orthodoxy on matters of sexuality, priestly celibacy, and ecclesiastical organization. We … He is best known for his rigid views on Catholicism and topics such as birth control and homosexuality. Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned as pope in 2013, made the comment in response to a question about what he had meant at his 2005 inauguration, when he urged Catholics to … “I can only say that with the slow waning of my physical forces, I’m on a pilgrimage towards home," he wrote, adding: "It is a great gift for me to be surrounded, on this last stretch of this sometimes tiring road, by a degree of love and goodwill that I could never have imagined.”. Share with your friends. Later, he moved to the University of Muenster (1963-66) and took a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen. His family moved frequently among villages in rural Bavaria, a deeply Roman Catholic region in Germany, as the Nazis strengthened their stranglehold on Germany in the 1930s. Last Testament: In His Own Words. Despite his reputation, even his harshest critics recognized his intelligence and his ability to discuss controversial matters in an objective and disinterested spirit. Or should I say, the Pope is the Catholic. In 1998, he became vice dean of the College of Cardinals and was elected dean in 2002. In 1972, Ratzinger helped found the theological journal Communio, which became one of the most important journals of Catholic thought. In 1943, Ratzinger and fellow seminarians were drafted into the anti-aircraft corps. "War reparations (from World War I) weighed heavily on the German economy. Friendship with Jesus: Pope Benedict XVI Talks to Children on Their First Holy Communion. News about Pope Benedict XVI, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Benedict made a controversial decision in January 2009 to revoke the excommunications of four bishops who in 1988 had been consecrated, without papal sanction, by Marcel Lefebvre (1905–91), an ultraconservative French archbishop who was excommunicated with them. Europe. According to several media reports, Benedict's decision centered on his old age, and physical and mental weakness. His papacy faced several challenges, including a decline in vocations and church attendance, divisive debates concerning the direction of the church, and the effects of the scandal beginning in the late 1990s surrounding the church’s handling of numerous cases of sexual abuse by priests. Ratzinger was sent home and then called up again before deserting in late April 1945. Ratzinger entered the seminary in 1939. In 2013 he became the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415. He is best known for his rigid views on Catholicism and topics such as birth control and homosexuality. The Pope is a unique celebrity. The New York Times bestselling final volume in the Pope’s Jesus of Nazareth series, detailing how the stories of Jesus’ infancy and childhood are as relevant today as they were two thousand years ago. Hermann Göring was a leader of the Nazi Party. In February 2013, at the age of 85, Pope Benedict XVI announced that he would be resigning on February 28, 2013 — becoming the first pope in centuries to step down from his post. Updates? May you always experience the joy that comes from putting Christ at the center of your lives." At the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Ratzinger served as a chief theological expert to Cardinal Joseph Frings of Cologne, Germany. Pope Benedict XVI. Ratzinger’s election as pope on the second day of the conclave was something of a surprise because of his status as a leading candidate; front-runners are almost never chosen, a fact reflected in the popular expression, “He who enters as a pope leaves as a cardinal.” His position with the cardinal electors was apparently secured by his long service to John Paul and his devotion to his predecessor’s teachings and ideals. He was also recognized for his humility and gentleness as well as for his many talents; he spoke several languages and was an accomplished pianist, with a particular fondness for Mozart. For years after his unexpected resignation, Pope Benedict live in silence in the Vatican. He is the first pope from the Americas. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. He made his first trip to the Western Hemisphere, visiting Brazil, where he canonized Father Antonio Galvão (1739–1822), the first native-born Brazilian saint. He was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. Retired Pope Benedict XVI has published a letter which blames clerical sex abuse on the "all-out sexual freedom" of the 1960s. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! The youngest of three children, Ratzinger was six years old when the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933; his parents, who were staunch Catholics, were hostile to the regime. He was viewed as a reformer during this time. In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. Pope Benedict XVI - A Controversial Speech. Benedict XVI $4.19 - $14.56. Benedict XVI leaving the balcony of Castel Gandolfo after giving his final benediction before retiring from the papacy, 2013. One of the more progressive figures at the council, Ratzinger opposed those who hoped to limit reform. Pope emeritus Benedict XVI will celebrate Mass with his ailing brother on the feast of the Sacred Heart during his first full day in Germany Friday. Erwin Rommel was one of German's most popular generals during World War II, however,  after he was implicated in a plot to overthrow Hitler, Rommel took his life in 1944. He condemned liberation theology and suppressed more-liberal theologians such as the Brazilian Leonardo Boff and the American Charles Curran. His father was a determined anti-Nazi, Ratzinger wrote. In 2008, Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. In 2010 allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools—particularly in Germany, Ireland, and the United States—brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. Quotations by Pope Benedict XVI, German Clergyman, Born April 16, 1927. Select from premium Pope Benedict Xvi of the highest quality. He said that cultural and historical change had led … Retired Pope Benedict XVI broke his silence to reaffirm the value of priestly celibacy, just as Pope Francis weighs whether to allow married men to be ordained. He was married to Marie Antoinette and was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793. Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. We strive for accuracy and fairness. "Thank you for your love and support. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Benedict-XVI, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops - Biography of Pope Benedict XVI, Benedict XVI - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. After about a year in the anti-aircraft unit, Ratzinger was drafted into the regular military. In 1969 he moved to the University of Regensburg, where he later became vice president. On February 28 he formally resigned, taking the title pope emeritus. The homily he delivered as part of the funeral proceedings for the pope also increased his stature. Although Ratzinger insisted on the superiority of the Catholic faith to other religions, which he deemed insufficient as means to salvation, he was also closely involved in Pope John Paul’s historic efforts to reach out to other faiths, especially Judaism and Islam. The pope and his prefect shared a similar history, both having lived under totalitarian regimes, and their views concerning the church were substantially the same. Pope Benedict XVI grew up under war reparations from World War I, as the Nazi regime was gaining power. Two years later, he earned his doctorate at the University of Munich. Dear Brothers and Sisters, The Word of God this Sunday the second to the last Sunday of the liturgical year invites us to be vigilant and hardworking, in the expectation of the Lord's return at the end of time. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. BENEDICT XVI. In 2010, allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools — particularly in Germany, Ireland and the United States — brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. His choice of the name Benedict XVI recalled St. Benedict of Nursia, the patron saint of Europe and the founder of Western monasticism, as well as earlier popes of the same name, including Benedict XV (1914–22), who sought to mediate between the belligerents during World War I. Benedict XVI immediately took steps to continue John Paul’s dialogue with Judaism and Islam and with other Christian churches. Prior to his election as pope, Benedict led a distinguished career as a theologian and as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Benedict XVI served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. During the early years of his papacy, Benedict visited several countries, including Turkey, where he met the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople in the hope of improving relations between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. He issued new guidelines allowing greater use of the Latin mass—the order of the mass used before the reforms of the Second Vatican Council—and he published the encyclicals Deus caritas est (2005; “God Is Love”) and Spe salvi (2007; “Saved by Hope”). As prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Vatican office responsible for preserving Catholic doctrine and evaluating according to canon law the warrant for disciplinary action against clergy, Ratzinger earned a reputation as a hard-liner. Dirk Benedict is an actor best known for his roles on 'The A-Team' and 'Battlestar Galactica.'. The student protests and denunciations of Christianity that he witnessed while teaching at Tübingen reminded him of the tactics of the Nazis and gradually led him to adopt a more conservative theological perspective. Benedict XVI shocked the world in February when he became the first pope to resign in almost 600 years. Among them are Introduction to Christianity (1968); Called to Communion: Understanding the Church Today (1996); The Spirit of the Liturgy (2000); Jesus of Nazareth (2007); Jesus of Nazareth, Vol. Heinrich Himmler was the commander of Adolf Hitler's Schutzstaffel, and later of the Gestapo in Nazi Germany. His father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook (before she married). He deserted in April of that year and was captured by American forces and held prisoner for a brief period. Omissions? St Peter's Square Sunday, 16 November 2008 . He was condemned to hang as a war criminal in 1946 but took his own life instead. Ratzinger entered preparatory seminary in 1939. He earned his teaching licentiate in 1957 and became a professor of Freising College in 1958, teaching dogma and fundamental theology. Caritas in Veritate. Peter.". Enjoy the best Pope Benedict XVI Quotes at BrainyQuote. Pope Benedict XVI was born Joseph Ratzinger on April 16, 1927, in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany, the youngest of three children. But he could not avoid the realities of the day. His work in theology attracted the attention of the archbishop of Cologne, Joseph Frings, who asked Ratzinger to serve as his expert assistant at the Second Vatican Council (1962–65). In 1953 he was awarded a doctorate in theology at the University of Munich. Benedict Arnold was an American Revolutionary War general best known for his defection from the Continental Army to the British side of the conflict in 1780. Pope Francis seemed taken aback by Benedict's frailty when he saw him at the Holy Door, and he asked the throngs of pilgrims in the piazza to send their prayers for his "good health." Benedict XVI, bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. In March 1977 Ratzinger was appointed archbishop of Munich and Freising by Paul VI, who bestowed the cardinal’s hat on him three months later. AKA Joseph Alois Ratzinger. Benedict XVI $3.99 - $15.73. He has said his unit was attacked by Allied forces that year, but he did not take part in that battle because a finger infection had kept him from learning to shoot. After the war, Ratzinger continued his education in the seminary; he was ordained a priest in June 1951. Overview of the early life of Benedict XVI, with a detailed discussion of his involvement in the Hitler Youth. II (2012); and Last Testament: In His Own Words (2016). Benedict XVI, original name Joseph Alois Ratzinger, (born April 16, 1927, Marktl am Inn, Germany), bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church (2005–13). After earning his teaching license in 1957, he taught dogma and theology at the higher school of philosophy and theology in Freising until 1959, later moving to the University of Bonn (1959–69) and also teaching at universities in Münster (1963–66) and—at the invitation of the theologian Hans Küng—Tübingen (1966–69). He became the first pope to resign since Pope … It depicted Jesus' birth in Joseph's house. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Vatican also denounced the charge that, as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Benedict had been responsible for the Vatican's policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. Benedictus XVI Joseph Ratzinger 19.IV.2005 - 28.II.2013. In February 2013, Benedict XVI resigned from his position as pope. This page is dedicated to demonstrating that the past and present beliefs and actions… He wrote 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' in 1905. In a public letter written in February 2018, Benedict stated that he was nearing the end of his life. Author of. In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. Award-winning British actor Benedict Cumberbatch is known for playing the titular detective of the BBC's 'Sherlock' and the sorcerer Doctor Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Remembering Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, six years later – ENN 2019-02-28 Pope Benedict XVI shocked the world by retiring six years ago today. Pope Benedict XVI. Later that year he addressed the first Catholic-Muslim Forum, a three-day conference of Catholic theologians and Islamic scholars hosted by the Vatican to promote improved understanding between the two religions. His papacy faced several challenges, including the effects of the scandal beginning in the late 1990s surrounding the church’s handling of sexual abuse by priests. In one statement, the pope explained, "I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise." On Dec. 25, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI revealed a new-style nativity scene in the Vatican's St. Peter's Square. The pope bids a final farewell to a crowd outside the Vatican, leaves for papel summer residence in Castel Gandolfo. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He also overturned John Paul’s reform of the papal election process and restored the traditional practice when he declared that the election of a new pope requires a two-thirds majority of the cardinals attending the conclave. He was elevated to the papacy in 2005. Benedict XV was Pope from 1914-1922, so it's curious that the resignation came at the eight year mark of 2005-2013. Spare me any more reverential coverage about Pope Benedict XVI and his decision to give up his office. Americas. Max Weber was a 19th-century German sociologist and one of the founders of modern sociology. On November 25, 1981, he was made prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by his friend Pope John Paul II (1978–2005), whom he had known well since 1977. Benedict served his final day as pope on February 28, 2013. After World War II, he committed suicide to escape capture. But attention shifted quickly to the succession, and the election of the new Pope… His most recent book, Benedict XVI: A … Ratzinger was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. Traveling by helicopter, he departed the Vatican for the summer papal residence in Castel Gandolfo, Italy. He was captured by American soldiers and held as a prisoner of war for several months. He will continue to be known as Benedict XVI in his retirement and has been given the title of pope emeritus. Though Benedict has no further administrative or official duties and rarely appears in public, he did join Pope Francis on December 8, 2015, as he pushed open the great bronze doors of St. Peter's Basilica to launch his Holy Year of Mercy. In 2008 Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. In 2007 Benedict approved the decisions of the International Theological Commission, an advisory panel to the Vatican, that the traditional teaching of limbo was “unduly restrictive” and that unbaptized infants could be saved. The crowd responded with cheers and applause. Ratzinger returned to the seminary at the University of Munich in the fall of 1945 and was ordained a priest in 1951. Former pope Benedict XVI reported to be seriously ill. Ex-pontiff, 93, has shingles after being in poor health for some time, says German newspaper Published: 3 Aug 2020 . Independent scholar and adjunct instructor of history at the University of Delaware, Newark. On a personal level, I wish him well. His final public address in St. Peter’s Square drew a crowd of more than 50,000. Elected Archbishop of Munich, 24 March 1977. Ratzinger was elevated to the papacy on April 19, 2005, upon the death of Pope John Paul II, and celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass five days later. Find the perfect Pope Benedict Xvi stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Angelus. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/pope-benedict-xvi. "Unemployment was rife," he wrote in his memoir, Milestones. Pope Benedict XVI showed his own admiration for Benedict XV following his election to the papacy on 19 April 2005. He went on to state, "In today's world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of St. Peter and proclaim the gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognize my incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry entrusted to me... For this reason, and well aware of the seriousness of this act, with full freedom, I declare that I renounce the ministry of bishop of Rome, successor of St. Further, he declared that one of the goals of his papacy would be to revitalize the Catholic church in Europe. Benedict XVI $4.19 - $4.99. Ratzinger’s father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook. Known for his rigid views on Catholicism, he sought a more inclusive image as pope. Likewise, Pope Benedict XVI has been a great voice for peace in the conflicts in Iraq and throughout the Middle East. 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